Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.7.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2017
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, short term investments, accounts receivable, account payable, accrued expenses, derivative liabilities and notes payable. The carrying amount of these financial instruments approximates fair value due to length of maturity of these instruments.

Income Taxes

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes pursuant to the provisions of ASC 740-10, “Accounting for Income Taxes,” which requires, among other things, an asset and liability approach to calculating deferred income taxes. The asset and liability approach requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided to offset any net deferred tax assets for which management believes it is more likely than not that the net deferred asset will not be realized. The Company has deferred tax liabilities related to its intangible assets, which were approximately $418,000 as of June 30, 2017.

 

The Company follows the provisions of the ASC 740 -10 related to, Accounting for Uncertain Income Tax Positions. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others are subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. In accordance with the guidance of ASC 740-10, the benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions.

  

Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefits associated with tax positions taken that exceeds the amount measured as described above should be reflected as a liability for uncertain tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheet along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination. The Company believes its tax positions are all highly certain of being upheld upon examination. As such, the Company has not recorded a liability for uncertain tax benefits.

 

The Company analyzes its tax positions by utilizing ASC 740-10-25 Definition of Settlement, which provides guidance on how an entity should determine whether a tax position is effectively settled for the purpose of recognizing previously unrecognized tax benefits and provides that a tax position can be effectively settled upon the completion of an examination by a taxing authority without being legally extinguished. For tax positions considered effectively settled, an entity would recognize the full amount of tax benefit, even if the tax position is not considered more likely than not to be sustained based solely on the basis of its technical merits and the statute of limitations remains open. As of June 30, 2017, tax years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 are still potentially subject to audit by the taxing authorities.

Use of Estimates

Use of Estimates

 

Management estimates and judgments are an integral part of financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. We believe that the critical accounting policies described in this section address the more significant estimates required of management when preparing our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. We consider an accounting estimate critical if changes in the estimate may have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. We believe that the accounting estimates employed are appropriate and resulting balances are reasonable; however, actual results could differ from the original estimates, requiring adjustment to these balances in future periods.

Reclassification

Reclassification

 

Certain reclassifications have been made to previously reported amounts to conform to 2017 amounts. These reclassifications had no impact on previously reported results of operations or stockholders’ equity (deficit). The statement of operations has been reformatted in such a way that approximately $900,000 and $450,000 has been reclassified from Selling, general and administrative to Operating expenses for the six and three months ended June 30, 2016, respectively. Also, the statement of operations has been reformatted in such a way that there is no longer a caption showing gross profit.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts Receivable

 

Accounts receivable are recorded at management’s estimate of net realizable value. At June 30, 2017, and December 31, 2016 the Company had approximately $7,300,000 and $3,000,000 of gross trade receivables, respectively.

 

Our reported balance of accounts receivable, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents our estimate of the amount that ultimately will be realized in cash. We review the adequacy and adjust our allowance for doubtful accounts on an ongoing basis, using historical payment trends and the age of the receivables and knowledge of our individual customers. However, if the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, additional allowances may be required. At June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 the Company had approximately $760,000 and $500,000 recorded for the allowance for doubtful accounts, respectively.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets

 

Intangible assets that are subject to amortization are reviewed for potential impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Assets not subject to amortization are tested for impairment at least annually. The Company has intangible assets related to its purchase of Meridian Waste Services, LLC, Christian Disposal LLC, Eagle Ridge Landfill, LLC and the CFS Group, LLC; the CFS Group Disposal & Recycling Services, LLC; and RWG5, LLC, collectively “The CFS Group”.

Goodwill

Goodwill

 

Goodwill is the excess of our purchase cost over the fair value of the net assets of acquired businesses. We do not amortize goodwill, but as discussed in the impairment of long lived assets section above, we assess our goodwill for impairment at least annually.

Landfill Accounting

Landfill Accounting

 

Capitalized landfill costs

 

Cost basis of landfill assets — we capitalize various costs that we incur to make a landfill ready to accept waste. These costs generally include expenditures for land (including the landfill footprint and required landfill buffer property); permitting; excavation; liner material and installation; landfill leachate collection systems; landfill gas collection systems; environmental monitoring equipment for groundwater and landfill gas; and directly related engineering, capitalized interest, on-site road construction and other capital infrastructure costs. The cost basis of our landfill assets also includes asset retirement costs, which represent estimates of future costs associated with landfill final capping, closure and post-closure activities. These costs are discussed below.

 

Final capping, closure and post-closure costs — Following is a description of our asset retirement activities and our related accounting:

 

  Final capping — Involves the installation of flexible membrane liners and geosynthetic clay liners, drainage and compacted soil layers and topsoil over areas of a landfill where total airspace capacity has been consumed. Final capping asset retirement obligations are recorded on a units-of-consumption basis as airspace is consumed related to the specific final capping event with a corresponding increase in the landfill asset. The final capping is accounted for as a discrete obligation and recorded as an asset and a liability based on estimates of the discounted cash flows and capacity associated with the final capping.
     
  Closure — Includes the construction of the final portion of methane gas collection systems (when required), demobilization and routine maintenance costs. These are costs incurred after the site ceases to accept waste, but before the landfill is certified as closed by the applicable state regulatory agency. These costs are recorded as an asset retirement obligation as airspace is consumed over the life of the landfill with a corresponding increase in the landfill asset. Closure obligations are recorded over the life of the landfill based on estimates of the discounted cash flows associated with performing closure activities.
     
  Post-closure — Involves the maintenance and monitoring of a landfill site that has been certified closed by the applicable regulatory agency. Generally, we are required to maintain and monitor landfill sites for a 30-year period. These maintenance and monitoring costs are recorded as an asset retirement obligation as airspace is consumed over the life of the landfill with a corresponding increase in the landfill asset. Post-closure obligations are recorded over the life of the landfill based on estimates of the discounted cash flows associated with performing post-closure activities.

 

We develop our estimates of these obligations using input from our operations personnel, engineers and accountants. Our estimates are based on our interpretation of current requirements and proposed regulatory changes and are intended to approximate fair value. Absent quoted market prices, the estimate of fair value is based on the best available information, including the results of present value techniques. In many cases, we contract with third parties to fulfill our obligations for final capping, closure and post closure. We use historical experience, professional engineering judgment and quoted and actual prices paid for similar work to determine the fair value of these obligations. We are required to recognize these obligations at market prices whether we plan to contract with third parties or perform the work ourselves. In those instances where we perform the work with internal resources, the incremental profit margin realized is recognized as a component of operating income when the work is performed.

 

Once we have determined the final capping, closure and post-closure costs, we inflate those costs to the expected time of payment and discount those expected future costs back to present value. During the six months ended June 30, 2017 we inflated these costs in current dollars until the expected time of payment using an inflation rate of 1.78%. We discounted these costs to present value using the credit-adjusted, risk-free rate effective at the time an obligation is incurred, consistent with the expected cash flow approach. Any changes in expectations that result in an upward revision to the estimated cash flows are treated as a new liability and discounted at the current rate while downward revisions are discounted at the historical weighted average rate of the recorded obligation. As a result, the credit adjusted, risk-free discount rate used to calculate the present value of an obligation is specific to each individual asset retirement obligation. The weighted average rate applicable to our long-term asset retirement obligations at June 30, 2017 is approximately 9%.

  

We record the estimated fair value of final capping, closure and post-closure liabilities for our landfill based on the capacity consumed through the current period. The fair value of final capping obligations is developed based on our estimates of the airspace consumed to date for the final capping. The fair value of closure and post-closure obligations is developed based on our estimates of the airspace consumed to date for the entire landfill and the expected timing of each closure and post-closure activity. Because these obligations are measured at estimated fair value using present value techniques, changes in the estimated cost or timing of future final capping, closure and post-closure activities could result in a material change in these liabilities, related assets and results of operations. We assess the appropriateness of the estimates used to develop our recorded balances annually, or more often if significant facts change.

 

Changes in inflation rates or the estimated costs, timing or extent of future final capping, closure and post-closure activities typically result in both (i) a current adjustment to the recorded liability and landfill asset and (ii) a change in liability and asset amounts to be recorded prospectively over either the remaining capacity of the related discrete final capping or the remaining permitted and expansion airspace (as defined below) of the landfill. Any changes related to the capitalized and future cost of the landfill assets are then recognized in accordance with our amortization policy, which would generally result in amortization expense being recognized prospectively over the remaining capacity of the final capping or the remaining permitted and expansion airspace of the landfill, as appropriate. Changes in such estimates associated with airspace that has been fully utilized result in an adjustment to the recorded liability and landfill assets with an immediate corresponding adjustment to landfill airspace amortization expense.

 

Interest accretion on final capping, closure and post-closure liabilities is recorded using the effective interest method and is recorded as final capping, closure and post-closure expense, which is included in “operating” expenses within our Consolidated Statements of Operations.

 

Amortization of Landfill Assets - The amortizable basis of a landfill includes (i) amounts previously expended and capitalized; (ii) capitalized landfill final capping, closure and post-closure costs, (iii) projections of future purchase and development costs required to develop the landfill site to its remaining permitted and expansion capacity and (iv) projected asset retirement costs related to landfill final capping, closure and post-closure activities.

 

Amortization is recorded on a units-of-consumption basis, applying expense as a rate per ton. The rate per ton is calculated by dividing each component of the amortizable basis of a landfill by the number of tons needed to fill the corresponding asset’s airspace.

 

  Remaining permitted airspace — Our management team, in consultation with third-party engineering consultants and surveyors, are responsible for determining remaining permitted airspace at our landfills. The remaining permitted airspace is determined by an annual survey, which is used to compare the existing landfill topography to the expected final landfill topography.
     
  Expansion airspace — We also include currently unpermitted expansion airspace in our estimate of remaining permitted and expansion airspace in certain circumstances. First, to include airspace associated with an expansion effort, we must generally expect the initial expansion permit application to be submitted within one year and the final expansion permit to be received within five years. Second, we must believe that obtaining the expansion permit is likely, considering the following criteria:

 

  o Personnel are actively working on the expansion of an existing landfill, including efforts to obtain land use and local, state or provincial approvals;
     
  o We have a legal right to use or obtain land to be included in the expansion plan;
     
  o There are no significant known technical, legal, community, business, or political restrictions or similar issues that could negatively affect the success of such expansion; and
     
  o Financial analysis has been completed based on conceptual design, and the results demonstrate that the expansion meets the Company’s criteria for investment.

 

For unpermitted airspace to be initially included in our estimate of remaining permitted and expansion airspace, the expansion effort must meet all of the criteria listed above. These criteria are evaluated by our field-based engineers, accountants, managers and others to identify potential obstacles to obtaining the permits. Once the unpermitted airspace is included, our policy provides that airspace may continue to be included in remaining permitted and expansion airspace even if certain of these criteria are no longer met as long as we continue to believe we will ultimately obtain the permit, based on the facts and circumstances of a specific landfill.

 

When we include the expansion airspace in our calculations of remaining permitted and expansion airspace, we also include the projected costs for development, as well as the projected asset retirement costs related to the final capping, closure and post-closure of the expansion in the amortization basis of the landfill.

 

Once the remaining permitted and expansion airspace is determined in cubic yards, an airspace utilization factor (“AUF”) is established to calculate the remaining permitted and expansion capacity in tons. The AUF is established using the measured density obtained from previous annual surveys and is then adjusted to account for future settlement. The amount of settlement that is forecasted will take into account several site-specific factors including current and projected mix of waste type, initial and projected waste density, estimated number of years of life remaining, depth of underlying waste, anticipated access to moisture through precipitation or recirculation of landfill leachate, and operating practices. In addition, the initial selection of the AUF is subject to a subsequent multi-level review by our engineering group, and the AUF used is reviewed on a periodic basis and revised as necessary. Our historical experience generally indicates that the impact of settlement at a landfill is greater later in the life of the landfill when the waste placed at the landfill approaches its highest point under the permit requirements.

 

After determining the costs and remaining permitted and expansion capacity at each of our landfill, we determine the per ton rates that will be expensed as waste is received and deposited at the landfill by dividing the costs by the corresponding number of tons. We calculate per ton amortization rates for the landfill for assets associated with each final capping, for assets related to closure and post-closure activities and for all other costs capitalized or to be capitalized in the future. These rates per ton are updated annually, or more often, as significant facts change.

 

It is possible that actual results, including the amount of costs incurred, the timing of final capping, closure and post-closure activities, our airspace utilization or the success of our expansion efforts could ultimately turn out to be significantly different from our estimates and assumptions. To the extent that such estimates, or related assumptions, prove to be significantly different than actual results, lower profitability may be experienced due to higher amortization rates or higher expenses; or higher profitability may result if the opposite occurs. Most significantly, if it is determined that expansion capacity should no longer be considered in calculating the recoverability of a landfill asset, we may be required to recognize an asset impairment or incur significantly higher amortization expense. If at any time management makes the decision to abandon the expansion effort, the capitalized costs related to the expansion effort are expensed immediately.

 

As part of its acquisition of The CFS Group, the Company now owns and operates two landfills in the state of Virginia: Tri-City Regional Landfill in Petersburg, Virginia and Lunenburg Landfill in Lunenburg, Virginia. Information on both landfills has been included in the Company’s tables of landfill assets and liabilities.

 

The Company operations related to its landfill assets and liability are presented in the tables below:

 

    Six Months Ended 
June 30,
2017
 
       
Landfill Assets      
       
Beginning Balance   $ 3,278,817  
Assets acquired     31,766,000  
Capital additions     1,089,803  
Amortization of landfill assets     (2,091,816 )
    $ 34,042,804  
         
Landfill Asset Retirement Obligation        
         
Beginning Balance   $ 5,299  
Liabilities assumed in acquisition     7,903,620  
Interest accretion     169,206  
    $ 8,078,125  
Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition

 

The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of arrangement exists, services have been provided, the seller’s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable, and collection is reasonably assured. The majority of the Company’s revenues are generated from the fees charged for waste collection, transfer, disposal and recycling. The fees charged for our services are generally defined in service agreements and vary based on contract-specific terms such as frequency of service, weight, volume and the general market factors influencing a region’s rate. For example, revenue typically is recognized as waste is collected, or tons are received at our landfills and transfer stations.

Deferred Revenue

Deferred Revenue

 

The Company records deferred revenue for customers that were billed in advance of services. The balance in deferred revenue represents amounts billed in April, May and June for services that will be provided during July, August and September.

Basic Income (Loss) Per Share

Basic Income (Loss) Per Share

 

Basic income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing the Company’s net loss applicable to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares during the period. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing the Company’s net income (loss) available to common shareholders by the diluted weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. The diluted weighted average number of shares outstanding is the basic weighted number of shares adjusted for any potentially dilutive debt or equity. At June 30, 2017 the Company had outstanding stock warrants and options for 3,687,871 and 12,250 common shares, respectively.

 

At June 30, 2017, the Company had warrants and stock options outstanding that could be converted into approximately, 3,575,000 common shares. At December 31, 2016 the Company had a series of convertible notes, warrants and stock options outstanding that could be converted into approximately, 600,000 common shares. These are not presented in the consolidated statements of operations as the effect of these shares is anti- dilutive.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-Based Compensation

 

Stock-based compensation is accounted for at fair value in accordance with ASC Topic 718.

 

Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of the Share-Based Payment Topic of ASC 718 which requires recognition in the consolidated financial statements of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee or director is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also require measurement of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award.

 

Pursuant to ASC Topic 505-50, for share based payments to consultants and other third-parties, compensation expense is determined at the “measurement date.” The expense is recognized over the service period of the award. Until the measurement date is reached, the total amount of compensation expense remains uncertain. The Company initially records compensation expense based on the fair value of the award at the reporting date.

 

The Company recorded stock based compensation expense of approximately $70,000 and $5,500,000 during the six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016, respectively, which is included in compensation and related expense on the statement of operations.

Allocation of Purchase Price of Business Combinations

Allocation of Purchase Price of Business Combinations

 

In accordance with the guidance for business combinations, we determine whether a transaction or other event is a business combination. If the transaction is determined to be a business combination, we determine if the transaction is considered to be between entities under common control. The acquisition of an entity under common control is accounted for on the carryover basis of accounting whereby the assets and liabilities of the companies are recorded upon the merger on the same basis as they were carried by the companies on the merger date. All other business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method, we recognize the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquired entity. In addition, we evaluate the existence of goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase. We will immediately expense acquisition-related costs and fees associated with business combinations and asset acquisitions.

 

We allocate the purchase price of acquired properties and business combinations accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting to tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired based on their respective fair values to tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired based on their respective fair values. Tangible assets include land, buildings, equipment and tenant improvements on an as-if vacant basis. We utilize various estimates, processes and information to determine the as-if vacant property value. Estimates of value are made using customary methods, including data from appraisals, comparable sales, discounted cash flow analysis and other methods.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-11, “Revenue Recognition (Topic 605) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Rescission of SEC Guidance Because of Accounting Standards Updates 2014-09 and 2014-16 Pursuant to Staff Announcements at the March 3, 2016 EITF Meeting”, The amendments rescinds SEC paragraphs pursuant to two SEC Staff Announcements at the March 3, 2016 Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) meeting. Specifically, registrants should not rely on the following SEC Staff Observer comments upon adoption of Topic 606: 1) Revenue and Expense Recognition for Freight Services in Process, which is codified in paragraph 605-20-S99-2; 2) Accounting for Shipping and Handling Fees and Costs, which is codified in paragraph 605-45-S99-1; 3) Accounting for Consideration Given by a Vendor to a Customer (including Reseller of the Vendor’s Products), which is codified in paragraph 605-50-S99-1; 4) Accounting for Gas-Balancing Arrangements (i.e., use of the “entitlements method”), which is codified in paragraph 932-10-S99-5, which is effective upon adoption of ASU 2014-09. The Company expects that the adoption of this ASU would not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.


In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, "Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments" ("ASU 2016-15"), which reduces the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows under Topic 230. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company expects that the adoption of this ASU would not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfer of Assets Other than Inventory”, which requires the recognition of the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs. For public business entities, the amendments in this ASU are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within those annual reporting periods. For all other entities, the amendments in this ASU are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim reporting periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be adopted on a modified retrospective basis. The Company does not expect that adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

  

In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-17, “Consolidation (Topic 810): Interests Held through Related Parties That Are under Common Control”. The amendments affect reporting entities that are required to evaluate whether they should consolidate a variable interest entity in certain situations involving entities under common control. Specifically, the amendments change the evaluation of whether a reporting entity is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity by changing how a reporting entity that is a single decision maker of a variable interest entity treats indirect interests in the entity held through related parties that are under common control with the reporting entity. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim reporting periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect that adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, "Statement of Cash Flows: Restricted Cash". The amendments address diversity in practice that exists in the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash on the statement of cash flows. The amendment is effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including an adoption in an interim period. The amendments in this update should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. The adoption of this ASU on the statement of cash flows will increase cash and cash equivalents by the amount of the restricted cash on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, "Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business". The amendments in this ASU clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. Basically these amendments provide a screen to determine when a set is not a business. If the screen is not met, the amendments in this ASU first, require that to be considered a business, a set must include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output and second, remove the evaluation of whether a market participant could replace missing elements. These amendments take effect for public businesses for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those periods, and all other entities should apply these amendments for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect that adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

 

No other new accounting pronouncements issued or effective had, or are expected to have, a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.